Drugs – recreational. Part 2


Caffeine is a stimulant found in coffee, soft drinks, and tea. At this time, the literature linking caffeine with infertility is controversial. There are studies that link consumption of large amounts of caffeine to increased time to conception, infertility due to endometriosis and tubal disease, and miscarriage. (more…)

Drugs – recreational. Part 1


Recreational drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, barbiturates, PCP, and heroin can significantly impact female fertility. In women, recreational drug use is especially dangerous because it may cause harmful effects to the fetus if the woman does conceive. The way in which recreational drugs negatively impact fertility is thought to be related to their effects on gonadotropin (LH and FSH) secretion. (more…)

What Are the Emotional Effects of Cold Sores?


Cold sores can be temporarily disfiguring and embarrassing. Because they pop up on the lips and around the mouth, they are difficult to cover up with makeup. Some people may be so upset by the appearance of cold sores that they may avoid seeing friends and participating in activities. (more…)

My Calf Muscles Hurt


I’m a 44-year-old man. After my morning train arrives downtown, I walk to work, which is about one mile. I do a vigorous walk which takes about 12 to 15 minutes each way. Sometimes I get pain from my calf muscles down to my ankles. I was wondering if that would be a blood circulation problem. (more…)

Do Women need Steroids?


My daughter wants to know if women have to take steroids to build muscles?


No, women do not have to take steroids to build muscles. Women and girls can strengthen, firm, tighten and tone their muscles through resistance training, such as weight machines or free weights. (more…)

Stroke Information


A stroke is a frightening event for the individual who suffers the stroke as well as for his/her family and friends. As the name stroke implies, it is a medical emergency that sometimes seems to hit without warning and that can be an overwhelming experience.
“Stroke” refers to damage that results when an interruption in blood supply occurs in the brain. Stroke affects 500,000 people in the United States every year and is the leading cause of adult disability.

Recently, new treatments have been developed that can reverse the devastating effects of a stroke. In order to maximize the chance of a good outcome after a stroke, it is necessary to know the warning signs and understand the importance of seeking immediate medical attention. Once a stroke occurs and the critical “time window” of intervention has past, supportive care, rehabilitation and time are the mainstay of treatment.

Understanding Your Body
In order to understand what happens during a stroke, it is helpful to take a closer look at the brain. The brain continuously sends electrical messages down the spinal cord, out to the nerves and into muscles and organs throughout the body. At the same time, the brain receives and processes incoming messages back from the body. This sending, receiving and processing controls how we move, think, feel and behave.

Specific areas of the brain control specific functions, for example, an area is responsible for movement, another for vision, another for hearing and still others for speech. All of these brain activities require a great deal of energy, which the brain receives from the blood. The heart delivers the blood to the brain through several large arteries known as the internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries. These arteries divide into many smaller branches within the brain. Here, the oxygen and nutrients carried by the blood are delivered to the brain tissue, providing it with the energy it needs to function. Interruptions in blood supply to the brain, a blood clot or a ruptured blood vessel may result in a stroke, which deprive the brain of nutrients, oxygen and energy.

Types of Stroke
One of the most frequent types of strokes occurs when a fatty deposit known as plaque builds up on the artery walls. This can decrease the blood flow to the neighboring tissue, causing impaired brain function. Also, a blood clot, which is called a thrombus, can develop on the surface of the plaque and may completely block the flow of blood to a portion of the brain. Without oxygen or nutrients, the brain tissue no longer functions. This is called an ischemic stroke.

Another kind of ischemic stoke is caused by a wandering blood clot, which originates either in the heart or the arteries leading to the brain. This wandering clot, which is called an embolus, flows with the blood to the blood vessels of the brain. When the blood vessels become too narrow for the embolus to pass, it can block the flow of blood. This is called an embolism.

Not all strokes are caused by plaque or blood clots blocking an artery. A blood vessel may rupture and bleed within the brain or near the brain. This is known as a hemorrhagic stroke. When this happens, the brain tissue downstream from the rupture no longer gets enough blood or oxygen and dies.

When an area of the brain is injured by a stroke, the functions that are controlled by the area of the brain where the stroke occurred are lost.

Who Suffers from Stroke?
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States and the No. 1 cause of adult disability. No member of society is spared the risk of stroke. Several American presidents have suffered fatal strokes in the 20th century including President Nixon and President Roosevelt.

There are nearly 750,000 first ever or recurrent strokes each year in the U.S. and over 150,000 deaths directly related to strokes. Nearly one-third of all strokes affect individuals under the age of 65; stroke is by no means limited to older individuals.

There are many risk factors for stroke. Risk factors that cannot be changed or prevented, which are called “non modifiable risk factors,” include aging, a history of stroke or other cardiovascular disease (related to the heart or blood vessels) in the family and a personal history of stroke. Modifiable risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, heart disease (especially an abnormal heart rhythm), high cholesterol, physical inactivity and illegal drug use (especially cocaine). Recent studies have also identified factors in the blood that can predispose to stroke by making the blood sticky or inflamed.

Workout Wear for Winter and Beyond


When is the last time you thought about what you wear when you exercise? Never? Perhaps you just throw on the same old sweat suit you’ve had since high school. Then maybe it’s time to find out what else is available to add style, comfort and even safety to your next workout. (more…)

Lyme Disease Research


Two vaccines look very promising for the prevention of Lyme disease. Both have been studied with three doses given initially, during the first month, and at 12 months after the first dose. (more…)

How to Get By a Urinalysis


Basically all employment opportunities that you apply for in this day and age make you have a drug test. Most drug testing starts with a urinalysis. People are more concerned about having good results with urinalysis than they are with any other test, even the people who are not addicted to drugs. Urinalysis is used by many employers because the test is easy to administer, fast results are available and it is low cost. (more…)

Type Of Kidney Disease Has No Known Cure


Although the kidney is a gland that secretes hormones that help control body functions such as blood pressure, its primary function is to filter out waste products from the bloodstream. The filter mechanism in the kidney is called the glomerulus. (more…)

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